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The Geography of Arabia | A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims | ngapalau.comAfter the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century CE, the average European's knowledge of the world around them was limited to their local area and to maps provided by the religious authorities. The European global explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth century would not likely have come as soon as they did, were it not for the important work of the translators and geographers of the Islamic world. The Islamic empire began to expand beyond the Arabian Peninsula after the death of the prophet and founder of Islam, Mohammed, in CE. Islamic leaders conquered Iran in and in , Egypt was under Islamic control. The Muslims were stopped from further expansion into Europe by their defeat at the Battle of Tours in France in
History Of Saudi Arabia
It is a convention of historians to begin the history of a region with its geography. It has been said that not only institutions but geography, climate, and many other conditions unite to form the influences which acting through successive generations, shape up the character of individuals and nations, and character plays a vital role in shaping up their history. The Arabian peninsula is the cradle of Islam. Arabia, like any other region, has the kind of terrain that molds and modifies those who live in it and move through it. It's a stern, grim and inhospitable land, and is or was, until the obtrusion of oil, a constant challenge for survival to the wits of man. His survival in it depended upon his ability to come to terms with it.
Saudi Arabia , arid, sparsely populated kingdom of the Middle East. Extending across most of the northern and central Arabian Peninsula , Saudi Arabia is a young country that is heir to a rich history. This deep religious conservatism has been accompanied by a ubiquitous tribalism—in which competing family groups vie for resources and status—that often has made Saudi society difficult for outsiders to comprehend. In the midth century, most of Saudi Arabia still embraced a traditional lifestyle that had changed little over thousands of years. Since then, the pace of life in Saudi Arabia has accelerated rapidly. Modern methods of production have been superimposed on a traditional society by the introduction of millions of foreign workers and by the employment of hundreds of thousands of Saudis in nontraditional jobs. In addition, tens of thousands of Saudi students have studied abroad, most in the United States.
The king's official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. One of his male descendants rules the country today, as required by the country's Basic Law. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in , Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and , refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. The continuing presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in Major terrorist attacks in May and November spurred a strong ongoing campaign against domestic terrorism and extremism.
The Arabian Peninsula has served as both a land bridge and a center for indigenous cultural development for hundreds of thousands of years.
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The history of Saudi Arabia in its current form as a state began with its foundation in , although the human history of the region extends as far as 20, years ago. The region has had a global impact twice in world history:. At other times, the region existed in relative obscurity and isolation, although from the 7th century the cities of Mecca and Medina had the highest spiritual significance for the Muslim world , with Mecca becoming the destination for the Hajj pilgrimage, an obligation, at least once in a believer's lifetime, if at all possible. For much of the region's history a patchwork of tribal rulers controlled most of the area. Over the following years, the extent of the Al Saud territory fluctuated. However, between and , the Al Saud leader, Abdulaziz, carried out a series of wars of conquest which resulted in his establishing the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in