Brown and levinson 1987 book
Brown and Levinson's Politeness Model - Other bibliographies - Cite This For MePoliteness : Some Universals in Language Usage. Penelope Brown , Stephen C. Levinson , Stephen C.. This study is about the principles for constructing polite speeches. The core of it first appeared in Questions and Politeness, edited by Esther N. Goody now out of print.
Semantics Pragmatics Linguistic Politeness
Penelope Brown & Stephen C. Levinson - Politeness Some Universals in Language Usage.pdf
Politeness theory accounts for politeness in terms of the redressing of affronts to a person's sociological " face " by face-threatening acts. Notable concepts explicated in the framework of the theory include positive politeness , negative politeness , bald on-record and off-record communication styles; each described below. Although politeness has been studied in a variety of cultures for many years, Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson 's politeness theory has become very influential. Face is the public self-image that every person tries to protect. Brown and Levinson defined positive face two ways: as "the want of every member that his wants be desirable to at least some others executors" p. Ten years later, Brown characterized positive face by desires to be liked, admired, ratified, and related to positively, noting that one would threaten positive face by ignoring someone.