Deterrence and the death penalty book
Capital punishment - WikipediaPunitive executions also have been and continue to be carried out more informally, such as by terrorist groups, urban gangs, or mobs. But for centuries in Europe and America, discussions have focused on capital punishment as an institutionalized, rule-governed practice of modern states and legal systems governing serious criminal conduct and procedures. Among major European philosophers, specific or systematic attention to the death penalty is the exception until about years ago. Most modern philosophic attention to capital punishment emerged from penal reform proponents, as principled, moral evaluation of law and social practice, or amidst theories of the modern state and sovereignty. The mid-twentieth century emergence of an international human rights regime and American constitutional controversies sparked anew much philosophic focus on theories of punishment and the death penalty, including arbitrariness, mistakes, or discrimination in the American institution of capital punishment. As with questions about the morality of punishment, two broadly different approaches are commonly distinguished: retributivism, with a focus on past conduct that merits death as a penal response, and utilitarianism or consequentialism, with attention to the effects of the death penalty, especially any effects in preventing more crime through deterrence or incapacitation.
The death penalty is not a deterrence
Deterrence and the Death Penalty
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Capital punishment , also known as the death penalty , is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence , whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes , capital offences or capital felonies , and they commonly include serious offences such as murder , mass murder , aggravated cases of rape , child rape , child sexual abuse , terrorism , treason , espionage , offences against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, piracy , aircraft hijacking , drug trafficking and drug dealing , war crimes , crimes against humanity and genocide , and in some cases, the most serious acts of recidivism , aggravated robbery , and kidnapping , but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital lit. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes , and 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, and positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, and they do not include Armenia , Russia , and Azerbaijan.